Cetacean Conservation

 Study of Humpback Whales in Japanese Waters

WWF Japan supported a survey of humpback whales in Japanese waters from 1988 to 1995. The survey was initiated by a Canadian scientist, Dr.James Darling, with help of Japanese volunteers. He used a method to identify animals by photo identification. Shapes and pattern of flukes of each humpback whale is different like human's finger prints. The purposes were to study status of the species in Northwestern Pacific Ocean and to introduce the method to Japan.

Humpback whales was heavily exploited by whaling, and hunting has been banned in the North Pacific since 1966. By late 1980s the survey of the species was well advanced in the North Atlantic and eastern Pacific (Alaska, Hawaii, Mexico) by photo identification. However, the status in the NW Pacific remained unknown.  

The survey turned very successful due to efforts by Dr. Darling,Japanese researchers (Dr. Kyoichi Mori, then a graduate student of Tokai University, Mr. Hiroyuki Suganuma, Mr. Fumihiko Sato, Miss Manami Yamaguchi of Ogasawara Marine Center) and Mr. Yukifumi Miyamura, volunteer in Zamami, Okinawa. The survey found out that Ogasawara and Kerama (Okinawa) waters are important breeding area in the NW Pacific, that there is a mixing between two waters, and that the same animals was identified in Hawaii and Ogasawara in different years. It also greatly contributed to start of Japanese whale watching. The results of the survey was largely publicized by the press and the survey is credited to have raised people's interest in live whales in Japan. This survey is still continued by Ogasawara Marine Center and the Ogasawara Whale Watching Association.

Whaling issue

Overexploitation of large whales which lasted until mid 1980s ignited anti-whaling movement which made the whaling issue as a symbol of environmental problems. From early 1970s public opinion supporting anti-whaling started growing. Anti-whaling parties eventually outnumbered pro-whaling parties within the IWC which made it possible to take conservation measures such as reduction of catch quote, increase of protected species, the Indian Ocean Whale Sanctuary (1979), the moratorium of commercial whaling (1982), and the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary (1994). As a results, now some species are recognized to recover.  

WWF Japan desires that enough precautionary approaches are taken to cope with changes in marine environment like marine pollution, and poaching of rare species. It is expected that threats of whaling would be considerably reduced if the Revised Management Schedule (RMS) which is being prepared by the IWC is implemented. However, marine mammals like cetaceans eat massive volume of zooplankton and fish for a long period, they lack capability to dissolve pollutants like PCB, there is a report showing increase in UV caused by ozone hole is decreasing phytoplankton which is decreasing krills in the Southern Ocean, it is not totally denied that meat of rare species like blue whale and right whale would be circulated in the market with ordinary meat. These are the reasons why WWF Japan desires precautionary approaches.

See also

About ten years ago,island fishermen reported seeing whales in the area. Then the humpback whales have returned to the Kerama,where they once were hunted. Foer several years the number of whales migrating to the Kerama gradually increased. Current from February to March every year,many boats (departed from Naha and each islands) is used for whale watching around the Kerama islands.
At present in the oceans of our earth there are seventy-six varieties of whales and dolphins comprised of sixty-six kinds of toothed whales and ten varieties of baleen whales. Among those that can have confirmed sightings in the seas off Okinawa are nineteen varieties of toothed whales and seven varieties of baleen whales. One of the most frequently sighted among the baleen whales is the Humpback. The Humpback Whales in the Pacific
In order to win females to pair up with as mates, male whales engage in repeated fierce battles amongst themselves. At certain times as many as two to eight males will accompany one female. The male humpbacks do this to propagate their species and for them it is serious business, but for whale-watchers it is a chance to have an unforgettable experience viewing this dramatic behavior. The seas off Zamami Island are mating seas for the humpback and in contrast to other sea areas, such as feeding seas where such behavior as bubble net fishing can be seen, the Zamami seas are where visitors can come to watch their mating pod behavior.
Humpbacks usually congregate in small groups of one to four but gather in much larger groups when they are in the seas where they feed. Humpback Whales are popular among whale-watchers because of their dynamic performances. Whale Singing
 by Senzo Uchida Humpback Whale